Analysis of Arabian stallion lines with Y chromosomal …
by E Michaelis · — Both samples of the Amer line showed Tb-. dW1, which is typical for the descendants of the Thoroughbred stallion Whalebone (born. 1807).
Samantha Brooks has stated “it is everywhere, and almost all racing Arabians now contain TB DNA, every horse, stallion or mare, associated with any racing program in the world“
US Arabian Horse Registry does not register foals from race-bred Arabians who carry Thoroughbred DNA proven through DNA testing nor excluded stallions from the HARC, Heritage Arabian Racing Club. Whalebone is the originator of a y chromosome haplotype mutation that cannot be found in Arabians — because he, Whalebone, who is a descendant of the Byerly Turk, is the starting point. The Byerly Turk is one of the three required stallions in the Thoroughbred breed in the topline for any Thoroughbred. Any horse that carries the Whalebone mutation therefore has Thoroughbred in their genome, regardless of how “Arab-y” the older Thoroughbred horses look.
Starting with 2019 registration sequence numbering for those foals and horses registered, these registration numbers are simply marked INELIGIBLE. Samantha Brooks, author of Genetic Diversity Paper and additionally three different European papers published in 2016, 2017 and 2019, all concur on Thoroughbred DNA existing in the Arabian world and also on the type of genetic testing which is being used for these laboratory results. Brooks has stated “it is everywhere, and almost all racing Arabians now contain TB DNA, every horse, stallion or mare, associated with any racing program in the world” and “What we found in these samples was not that much Arabian ancestry was part of the Thoroughbred line, but the opposite: that Thoroughbred DNA exists in most of the modern racing Arabian lines, indicating a more recent interbreeding within this group,” Brooks said. “I can’t speculate on the how or why, but this is clearly the story the DNA is telling us.”
A better solution, she said, would be working with some of the semantics. “These are still valuable athletic lines of horse, but they should be labeled appropriately,” she explained. “Maybe there can be subgroups with the appropriate national registries specific to the racing Arabians with genetically identified admixture. And then perhaps just not permit registering offspring of these horses back into the main studbook of traditional Arabian horses. I think they could do fantastically well in this type of system.”
Those requesting registration with US Arabian Horse Registry must furnish proof through DNA typing of the Y Chromosome and through RFMix26 analysis the horse(s) submitted for registration do not contain TB DNA to be considered eligible for inclusion or registration of said stallion or mare and any progeny of said stallion or said mare within US Arabian Horse Registry. The Purebred Arabian in this paper identified three Arabian Y haplogroups (Ao-1, Ao-2 and Ta). Tb-oB1 haplogroup is attributed to the “Byerley Turk” foundation sire of the Thoroughbred breed as well as Tb-dW1 hap-logroup, also known as the Whalebone haplotype. Y-chromosome haplotypes were determined by genotyping 14 key Y-chromosomal variants using LGC KASP® technology.
Arabian Horse Association website states: “Purebred Certificate of Registration – The term “Purebred Arabian Horse” which appears on every Purebred Arabian Certificate of Registration issued by AHA, has more than a casual significance. A Certificate of Registration is the only official document verifying that the horse is a Purebred Arabian horse and is universally accepted by the horse community.” WHEREAS The Purebred Arabian horse community does not accept Thoroughbred DNA as creating a Purebred Arabian horse.
Rules and Regulations
Section 1, Rule 3 Mission Statement
US Arabian Horse Registry Position: Our mission is to record and preserve pedigrees of the Purebred Arabian horse, while maintaining the integrity of the breed.
Section 2, Rule 1
C. A foal is eligible for registration provided it is shown to the satisfaction of US Arabian Horse Registry the foal’s pedigree authentically traces in all its lines to horses recorded in US Arabian Horse Registry or a Foreign Stud Book if it satisfies all other requirements set forth in these rules. No horse foaled in the United States may be registered unless both its sire and dam have been previously registered in US Arabian Horse Registry or an approved Stud Book. The only exceptions to this rule are a foal imported in utero whose dam is properly registered in US Arabian Horse Registry and whose sire was not imported but is properly registered in an approved Stud Book and those individuals who through modern DNA genetic testing have been found to carry DNA from another breed/and or are listed as exception stallions by Heritage Arabian Racing Club, namely Amer, Baroud III, Baroud II, Burning Sand, Dragon, St [Saint] Laurent and Flipper.
D. US Arabian Horse Registry may require any party who seeks to register a foal or who submits information related in any way to registration of a foal to provide such further evidence and assurances as US Arabian Horse Registry may reasonably require, and may also require any such party make the horse(s) involved available for inspection.
I. i) A foal is not eligible for registration unless its sire and dam have been genetically typed or re-DNA typed, as required under Rule 5.
Section 2, Rule 2
G. The Assignment of Burden of Persuasion for registration eligibility: In all proceedings connected with or affecting the registration or records of USAHR, and in all disciplinary actions, the burden of resolving any doubt as to the true parentage, identification of a horse or qualification for registration shall be upon the applicant, owner, recorded leasee, or other member or members involved.
G. 2) Genetic tests may be required as the Board of Trustees determines, including, but not limited to questions of true parentage or identification of horses.
HARC or Heritage Arabian Racing Club
Heritage Arabian Racing Club is a world-wide organization that supports and promotes racing for those who wish to preserve the Purebred Arabian of traditional type and bloodlines and to ensure the long-term future of Arab horse characteristics, in the broadest terms, with the hallmarks of beauty, athletic ability, soundness and versatility. Initiated by HH Sheikh Sultan Bin Zayed Al Nahyan, United Arab Emirates, (UAE), now deceased.
The definition of a HARC Purebred Arabian must not contain the blood of the following stallions in any generation of its pedigree in order to pursue the goal of diversifying the gene pool of Arabian racehorses. Stallions excluded: Amer, Baroud III, Burning Sand, Dragon, St [Saint] Laurent, Tiwaiq
THE ABOVE IS TAKEN FROM THE ARABIAN JOCKEY CLUB WEBSITE: https://www.arabianracing.org/harc/
APPROVED DEFINITION OF A HARC RACEHORSE: Extract from Minutes of inaugural meeting 28th February 2015: “Finally the following proposal was made and unanimously accepted. Definition of a HARC horse will be: “In order to preserve the classic characteristics of the purebred Arabian horse, it has been agreed that a HARC (Heritage Arabian Racing Club) horse is any purebred Arabian registered in any WAHO accepted stud book and it must not contain the blood of the following stallions in any generation of its pedigree. Stallions excluded: Amer, Baroud III, Burning Sand, Dragon, St Laurent, Tiwaiq.” Other horses may be added if considered necessary after formal agreement by the Club Management Committee and agreement at an AGM. Such horses will remain pending until they are approved.” https://www.lescahiersduchevalarabe.com/images/stories/Newsletter_3/APPROVED_DEFINITION_OF_A_HARC_RACEHORSE1.pdf
Amer is discussed in length on the webpage Racing Arabians Usually Not Purebreds. Some of his sons with foals registered in AHR are Assy, Kasih, AF Albahar, Dahess, Amaretto, Darweesh, Majd Al Arab, General, and Rathowan. His daughters with foals registered in AHR are Farah, with her dam carrying close lines to Flipper and St Laurent, Shehadda, Ma’Ma’Ah, her dam’ sire carrying blood of Mandragore and St Laurent, and the second dam with Manganate [Dragon], Tidjani [Flipper and St Laurent] and Baroud III, and Alwiya whose dam is a Kesberoy daughter [Kesberoy by St Laurent].
Baroud III born in 1969, a bay registered SBFAR #10134, French Stud Book; Al Maury used in many of the names of his progeny. A daughter, Pistache Du Cassou, bay, born 1981, registered SBFAR #10595 is the dam to Nivour De Cardonne AHR #597576, chestnut, born 1995.
Burning Sand came from breeders little known to those involved in Arabian racing in the USA. He was bought as a 2 year old by the late horse trainer Arnold Bardin, who shortly thereafter formed a partnership with Alma Jean and Jay Moore. In a race at Delaware Park 1989 Burning Sands was withdrawn in the paddock because his markings did not correspond to those on his foal papers. (Subsequent blood tests to determine whether the horse was a purebred Arabian are not known to have been disclosed.) For reason unexplainable, the AJC revoked Burning Sand’s race record and nullified his racing certificate. The Arabian Registry, however, found no evidence to revoke his certificate of registration as a Purebred Arabian. [https://m.facebook.com/BurningSandInternational/photos/the-story-of-burning-sand-part-2horse-racing-is-sometimes-called-the-sport-of-ki/1499735853434452/]
Dragon born in 1940, registered SBFAR, French Stud Book, inbred to Burkeguy. The mare line, Mandore by Grabiec x Mandarine III by Dragon, includes Dormane, Djendel, Djamel, Madel and Mangadore. Another son of Manganate is Djelfor, who sired Sadeem with foals registered in AHR. See Nivour De Cardonne below.
St or Saint Laurent, a chestnut born 1948, registered SBFAR #7260 is the sire of Manganate, chestnut, born 1972, and whose dam is Mandragore, registered SBFAR 7592, bay, born 1955, by Dragon, 1972 registered SBFAR 6829. A St Laurent son is Kesberoy, registered SBFAR 10263, the sire of Munjiz who sired 2008 chestnut Al Mamun Monlau. Al Mamun Monlau, AHR registered, is out of Salahah De Monlau by Tidjani by Flipper. St Laurent is by Baroud II, chestnut, born 1927, registered SBFAR 5868 out of Madou. Manganate is well represented in this country. Manganate is out of a Dragon daughter. Calin Du Loup, Dormane, Nivour de Cardonne are sons of Manganate. Kaolina and Falina Des Fabries are sons of Dormane. Another son of Manganate is Djelfor, who sired Sadeem as well as Bandar Log, both have foals registered in AHR.
VIRGULE AL MAURY – AHR 525301 has 63 sons and daughters listed as producing in the Stud Book records. This chestnut stallion is by Kesberoy out of a Baroud III daughter. Kesberoy is by Saint Laurent by Baroud II. ALL FOALS CARRYING THIS DNA ARE INELIGIBLE FOR REGISTRATION.
NIVOUR DE CARDONNE – AHR 597576 foals are INELIGIBLE FOR REGISTRATION. Mandragore DNA carrying the blood of Dragon gives to her son’s DNA, MANGANATE by Saint Laurent by Baroud II, the sire of Nivour De Cardonne. Mandragore has two other foals: Managhi by Saint Laurent who is the dam of TIDJANI and Manguier who is by Gosse Du Bearn. Manguier is the sire of Djourman whose dam is Djouranta by Saint Laurent by Baroud II. Nivour De Cardonne’s dam is Pistache Duu Cassou by Baroud III making Nivour De Cardonne’s DNA again INELIGIBLE FOR REGISTRATION.
BANDAR LOG – AHR 554075 foals are INELIGIBLE FOR REGISTRATION. Bandar Log sire is Djelfor by Manganate by Saint Laurent by Baroud II. Bergeronnette is the dam of Bandar Log; she is by Djouran by Saint Laurent. Bandar Log had 43 foals in this country with 10 producing foals who have been registered. His daughters have all produced at least one daughter who has not any foals shown as registered. Only one son’s dam carries the blood of Baroud III with all his other sons outcrosses. However this son has 12 daughters and one stallion son to carry on the DNA of Baroud II, Baroud III, and Saint Laurent.
FLIPPER SBFAR DNA is INELIGIBLE FOR REGISTRATION. Tiwaiq at one time was given as Flipper being his sire but the records now show bred in Saudi Arabia, currently being shown as Desert Bred or as Saudi Bred, Saudi 623. AHR records show Gosse Du Bearn, SBFAR 10063 as the sire of Flipper with the dam of Flipper as Fleur D’Avril, SBFAR 10141. Baseq Al Khalediah, AHR 666679, and Nashwan Al Khalidian, SBFAR 30582, are shown as Tiwaiq sons. Nashwan Al Khalidan’s dam, Rayyan’s sire carries both Baroud III and Manganate by Saint Laurent. Baseq Al Khalediah’s dam, Keheilan is by Kesberoy by Saint Laurent by Baroud II. Flipper is the sire of the dam to Calin Du Loop, Nivada. Calin Du Loop is the sire of TH Richie. TH Richie is the sire of several RACE producing daughters, including RB Big N Rich, Rich Craft, RB Rich Kin, RB Djudge Djudy, RB Burn Baby Burn, Rich Sister, Rich Frynd, and Rich Kinkga. TIDJANI is a Flipper son out of the Saint Laurent daughter, Managhi who is by Saint Laurent. FEI Records show Tidjani’s sire as Flipper. Madjani by Tidjani has a dam who is all Tunisian breeding, sires and dams.